1. Refers to the relationship between the grammatical components of language in use. The
grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence, primarily concerned with structure or word
2. Used alongside other morphemes, i.e. s in cats
3. The relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word. AKA accent.
4. The matching of a symbol with a phoneme. (matching a letter with a sound)
5. An abstract unit of speech sound that can distinguish words. Changing this within a word can
produce another word.
3. Negative Transfer
4. Voiceless consonants
a Describes the pronunciation of sounds
when the larynx does not vibrate
b Different cultures maintain different
standards of proximity/personal space.
c When a speaker works around an
unknown word (think catchphrase -
describing scissors as ‘the things that
are used to cut paper’)
d The way sounds function within a given
language or across languages to encode
e This occurs when new language learners
apply the rules from their native
language to the language being learned.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Describes a sound in which the vocal cords vibrate.
b. Voiceless consonants
c. Voiced Consonants
d. Word Stress
2. Words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings and different spellings. i.e.
read/red, great/grate, seen/scene.
3. A pair of words that differ by only a single sound and are recognized by speakers as different
words. i.e. bat/cat or hare/dare
d. Minimal Pairs
4. When one phoneme is constantly switched with another in speech – i.e. shair for chair
b. Phonetic Transcription
d. Phoneme Substitution
5. Constriction of the passage way (w, y)
1. Aspiration â†’ Knowing a word, its definition, synonyms, and extended meanings of the word.
As well as knowing other words related to the word. Semantic cues help students understand
the meaning of words in a particular sentence/context.
2. Idioms â†’ Formed by completely blocking air. (p, b)
3. Affixes â†’ Bound morphemes at the beginning or end of free morphemes (carry meaning).
Some change the part of speech, others do not.
4. Sociopsycholinguistics â†’ The matching of a symbol with a phoneme. (matching a letter with
5. IPA â†’ Constriction of the passage way (w, y)